CNH consequences for the pounds, blood glucose levels and you may hematocrit

Glucose levels

Venous bloodstream was taken playing with a beneficial Teflon catheter regarding the ear limited vein, and you may blood glucose level was mentioned using commercial strips and you will a good sugar meter (Accu-Chek ® Energetic, Roche, Germany).

Analytical investigation

All data is presented as mean ± SEM. Statistical analysis of data was performed with GraphPad Prism (version 6.07 for Windows, GraphPad Software, San Diego California, USA). Non-normally distributed variables: body weight, hematocrit, SD1, SD2, LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio. Normally distributed variables: blood glucose, heart rate, cardiac cycle duration, cardiac contraction time, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, HRV total power. Mean arterial pressure as well as HRV power bands were normally distributed before but not after vagotomyparison between two groups was performed using parametric (Student?s t-tests) or nonparametric (Mann–Whitney or Wilcoxon test) tests, according to the data structureparison between more than two groups was performed using nonparametric analysis of variance (Kruskal–Wallis) test. Statistical decision level was set at p < 0.05.


The mean body weight of control animals (1.87 ± 0.08 kg; n = 11) was like the initial mean weight of animals exposed to CNH (1.79 ± 0.10 kg; n = 8). After 14 days, the body weight of control rabbits increased significantly to 2.27 ± 0.10 kg (p < 0.05). In contrast, the average body weight of CNH exposed rabbits was not significantly modified after 2-wks of CNH exposure (1.79 ± 0.10 kg vs. 1.78 ± 0.11 kg). Moreover, at the end of the CNH exposure rabbits had lower body weights than predicted values based on unexposed rabbits (2.27 ± 0.10 kg, p < 0.01).

CNH affected hematocrit but did not alter blood glucose levels. The mean hematocrit increased from 40.3 ± 0.7% at the beginning of the CNH period to 55.8 ± 0.9% after 14 days of CNH (p < 0.001). The mean blood glucose levels, measured after anesthetic induction and prior to physiological recordings, were similar in control and CNH rabbits (7.99 ± 0.51 mmol/L, n = 5 and 8.55 ± 0.47 mmol/L, n = 5, respectively; p > 0.05).

Negative effects of CNH to the asleep cardiovascular variables within the basal conditions

Desk 1 provides the mean beliefs on cardio variables getting manage and you may CNH rabbits mentioned through the a beneficial ten-min recording away from straight heart sounds pursuing the induction of anesthesia. Rabbits confronted by 14 days away from CNH didn’t come with statistically high differences (p > 0.05) inside the arterial stress, heartrate, cardiac years duration and you can contraction date, compared to the control rabbits. Particularly, heartrate and you can mean arterial also systolic and you may diastolic arterial challenges was basically a bit however notably enhanced when you look at the CNH rabbits than the viewpoints in control rabbits (Dining table step 1). Similarly, arterial heart circulation pressure was a little although not notably reduced in CNH rabbits in terms of control pet (Desk 1).

Cardiovascular variables shortly after two-sided vagotomy

Most cardiovascular variables were affected by bilateral vagotomy (Table 2) in control rabbits. After vagotomy, mean heart rate increased significantly from ± bpm to ± bpm (p < 0.05; Fig. 2a). Similarly, after vagotomy, mean systolic, diastolic, and pulse arterial pressure increased (p < 0.05), and mean arterial blood pressure also increased (p < 0.05). Conversely, bilateral vagotomy did not modify significantly these cardiovascular variables in the CNH rabbits (Table 2).

Heart rate before and after bilateral vagotomy in control and CNH rabbits. a Mean heart rate was significantly increased in control (n = 6) but not in CNH rabbits (n = 6) after bilateral vagotomy (VgTx). b Scatter plot of mean heart rate after bilateral vagotomy as a function of basal mean heart rate. Dotted line: line of identity. c In control rabbits, changes in mean heart rate were maximal in the midrange of basal heart rate; in CNH rabbits, changes were inversely and linearly related to basal mean heart rate. Control rabbits: empty circles, continuous line. CNH rabbits: filled circles, segmented line. Bars: SEM. *p < 0.05